Mark Lidwill, who received his MD from the University of Sydney way back in 1911, designed and patented a machine responsible for the first pacing of the heart using an insulated needle in 1926. The technology was a first step towards the development of the modern day pacemaker.
Dr. Lidwill, recognized that heart muscle could be made to contract when exposed to electrical stimulation, and set about creating a portable, easy to use electrical device to resuscitate a heart. In 1926, he created just such a machine, and performed an operation on a newborn.
The rudimentary pacemaker had a variable pulsation rate of between 80 and 120 beats a minute, and variable voltage between 1.5 to 120 volts.
Although certainly primitive, it was, for its time, truly revolutionary. It is an exceptional example of early Australian University innovation.
[img source] S. Winton (CCA2.0) bit.ly/1qIrb13